ADHD: Neurodevelopmental Disorder

With roughly 7% world prevalence, ADHD is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in the world. Adolescent ADHD is characterized by problems with attention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity. 30-65% of children with ADHD carry it into adulthood where the symptom of hyperactivity is re-titled “restlessness” (Mayer). Meta-analysis of fMRI studies of ADHD have uncovered there is a strong correlation between the under activation of the cognitive control regions such as “rIFC, basal ganglia, anterior cingulate cortex and the supplementary motor area as well as poor deactivation of DMN regions such as the ventral anterior cingulate cortex and posterior cingulate and precuneus during cognitive tasks” (Rubia). When this deviation from normal brain activity is tracked with EEG NF, it is seen as a higher emission of theta waves, which are associated with a daydreaming, zone-out, characteristic. ADHD when gone untreated can cause children to struggle in academics, causing them to have a higher chance for high school and higher level school drop-out, drug use, unstable relationships , frequent job loss, and delinquency (Mayer).

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